ATAR


ATAR
ATAR (also Attar, Ibn Atar, Benatar, Abenatar, Abiatar), family of Spanish origin. Many members of the Atar family left Spain during the persecutions of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 17th century the name reappeared in Amsterdam, Turkey, and, particularly, Morocco, and afterward in Hamburg, London, and Curaçao. Many of the Abenatars in these communities were descended from Marranos; the family relationship among them is certain. ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON ABIATAR (17th–18th century) was a poet, talmudist, and kabbalist who lived in Fez, Morocco. ḤAYYIM ABENATAR (same period) was a notable of the community there. Ḥayyim settled in Salé, founding and heading a yeshivah, where his distinguished grandson Ḥayyim Ben Moses (II) attar studied; his brother SHEM-TOV (d. 1701), a wealthy philanthropist, was nagid at Salé. Shem Tov's SON MOSES (d. c. 1725) began his career as secretary-adviser to the viceroy of southern Morocco. He succeeded his father as nagid, directed the family's large commercial enterprises, and was appointed treasurer to King Mulay Ishmael. When Moses Mocatta of London failed to negotiate a peace treaty with Morocco on behalf of King George I of England, Moses Abenatar was chosen to replace him. He began by freeing English captives in Morocco and successfully concluded the treaty in 1721, introducing a clause stipulating that Moroccan Jews who had settled in the British Empire would be given the right to be judged in Jewish courts. However, his success aroused jealousy. Unjustly accused of embezzlement, he escaped death only by paying the king a huge fine. After the death of his rival, the nagid Abraham Maimaran in 1723, Moses was appointed nagid of all the Jews in the Sherifian Empire. Pious, generous, and learned, he built and maintained many schools for poor children. ABRAHAM (II) succeeded his brother Moses as nagid. Another brother, JACOB, became governor of the port of Tetuán. At the beginning of the 19th century JOSEPH ABENATAR represented Portugal and Denmark as consul in Rabat-Salé. His son ABRAHAM (III), av bet din in Mogador, composed religious poetry. His funeral oration was published under the title Abi'a Ḥidot (Leghorn, 1881). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baer, Urkunden, 1, pt. 2 (1936), 420–1; ESN, 182 ff.; I.S. Emmanuel, Precious Stones of the Jews of Curaçao (1957), index; J. Abensur, Mishpat u-Ẓedakah be-Ya'akov (1894), nos. 14, 92, 201; SIHM, France, 2nd series, 6 (1960), 574–9; J. de la Faille, Relation … Maroc (1726), 27–28, 33–41; J. Windus, A Journey to Mequinez (London, 1725), 5–11, 89 ff., 197–8, 219 ff.; J.M. Toledano, Ner ha-Ma'arav (1911), 148, 154–5; Miège, Maroc, 2 (1961), 333, 561; Hirschberg, Afrikah, 2 (1965), 266, 273–6; H.Z. Hirschberg, in: Essays … I. Brodie (1967), 153–81. (David Corcos)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Atar — ( ātar , Avestan) is the Zoroastrian concept for burning and unburning fire and visible and invisible fire (Mirza, 1987:389).In an unrestricted sense, atar is heat that is, thermal energy, manifest as fire or other luminous source when visible.… …   Wikipedia

  • Atar — ‏أطار‎ Geschäfts und Handwerkerviertel Staat …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • atar — verbo transitivo,prnl. 1. Sujetar (una persona) [a otra persona, un animal o una cosa] con ligaduras: Até el caballo a un tronco. Ató a su compañero de juegos de pies y manos. Se ató …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • Atar — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El término Atar puede hacer referencia a: ATAR, Asociación Civil de ATaxias de ARgentina. Atar, un concepto del Zoroastrismo. Atar, ciudad de Mauritania. Obtenido de Atar Categoría: Wikipedia:Desambiguación …   Wikipedia Español

  • atar — atar, atado y bien atado expr. muy controlado. ❙ «Todo estaba atado y bien atado.» M. Vázquez Montalbán, La soledad del manager, 1977, RAE CREA. ❙ «El general creía que lo había dejado todo atado y bien atado.» DCB. 2. atar corto expr. dominar,… …   Diccionario del Argot "El Sohez"

  • atar — (Del lat. aptāre, ajustar, adaptar). 1. tr. Unir, juntar o sujetar con ligaduras o nudos. 2. Impedir o quitar el movimiento. 3. Juntar, relacionar, conciliar. 4. prnl. No saber cómo salir de un negocio o apuro. 5. Ceñirse o reducirse a una cosa o …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • atar — a atar ao poste. atar com atar com um fio …   Dicionario dos verbos portugueses

  • atar — n. 1. essential oil or perfume obtained from flowers. Syn: attar, athar, ottar [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • atar — Se conjuga como: amar Infinitivo: Gerundio: Participio: atar atando atado     Indicativo   presente imperfecto pretérito futuro condicional yo tú él, ella, Ud. nosotros vosotros ellos, ellas, Uds. ato atas ata atamos atáis atan ataba atabas ataba …   Wordreference Spanish Conjugations Dictionary

  • Atar —   [altiranisch »Feuer«], zentrales Element im Kult der Zoroastrier (Feuertempel). Der Feuerkult reicht weit in die arische Vorgeschichte der Iraner zurück und wurde von Zarathustra übernommen. Als reinigend und lebenserneuernd wird das Feuer im… …   Universal-Lexikon


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